The White House didn't immediately say which USA officials would be traveling with Mr. Trump.
Trump's election victory dominated conversation at the World Economic Forum a year ago, though the administration didn't send any official representatives. Onetime Trump adviser Anthony Scaramucci also appeared in a panel at Davos past year.
This year's event will put Trump in the same room as numerous global elites he attacked during his 2016 campaign.
Trump would be the first sitting USA president to attend the meeting of global economic and financial leaders since Bill Clinton in January 2000.
It is rare for American presidents to attend.More news: Australian Open 2018: Serena Williams Withdraws From Tournament
This year, Trump will discuss his "America First" agenda in person, said White House Press Secretary Sarah Sanders. He is threatening to end the Nafta free trade agreement with Canada and Mexico, issue trade sanctions against China and scrap the Iran nuclear deal.
Trump's trip to Davos - a conference that runs from January 23-26 - will come just days before Trump delivers his first State of the Union address on January 30.
The first sitting USA president to appear in Davos was Bill Clinton in 2000, at the forum's 30th anniversary session.
Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama did not attend while in office.
In an interview on Monday prior to the announcement, Harvard University professor Ken Rogoff identified Trump as a risk to the economic expansion.