Dhawan, who played his last Test in October against New Zealand, has been in top form of late and ended the ICC Champions Trophy in England and Wales as the leading run-getter.
India kick-off their Sri Lanka tour with the first Test at Galle on July 26.
The right-handed opener had missed only one match against Australia out of India's long home season of 13 Tests and had later revealed he had been playing with a fractured wrist.
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Vijay had suffered a wrist injury during Australia's tour of India, and this news will be another setback for the opener, who was looking to perform well in the island nation.
However, after enduring an injury, he was replaced by Dhawan for the Test series. The attacking southpaw also scored 161 runs in the five-match ODI series against the West Indies. "The BCCI medical team has therefore advised Vijay to continue his rehabilitation programme", he added. Star batsman Rohit Sharma and pacer Mohammad Shami were re-called for the Sri Lanka tour scheduled to be held from July 26 to September 6. Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) announced on Twitter on Monday. He was out of action for nearly three-and-a-half months and had missed the entire IPL season with the Dharamsala Test against Australia in March being his last competitive match.
India last toured the Island nation in August 2015 where they played an exciting three-match Test series which they won 2-1 under the captaincy of Virat Kohli.