The 17-year-old girl, who has not been named, was unconscious when she was pulled from the water near Esperance in Western Australia after the attack this afternoon.
This is a developing story.
Police later confirmed she had died from her injuries, tweeting their condolences and describing the attack as "devastating".
The beach has been closed until further notice and surfers are advised to stay away for 48 hours.More news: Venezuela's Maduro blasts foe for chemical attack comments
The family, from Mandurah, was reportedly on an Easter holiday.
This fatal incident was close by to the scene of a 2014 shark attack that caused a man to lose his arm and hand, according to 9News. The two beaches are less than 8km apart. It was reported that two great white sharks were involved in that incident.
A year ago there were four fatal shark attacks worldwide, two of which occurred in Western Australia, according to the university's records.
Last year, two people were killed by sharks in Western Australia, The Australian newspaper said.
One month earlier, Ben Gerring, 29, died after having his leg severed by a great white shark at Falcon Beach.